Assistance/maintenance (and unwinding) The result was the creation of a cable maintenance area. For example, the Yokohama area (YZ) has been developed for cables in North Asia and the Pacific Northwest. Next to the YZ, we have the North America zone, the SEAIOCMA zone and the Fiji area in the Asia-Pacific region. For example, a rapid evolution was triggered in the cable jet with manned submarines, which culminated in 1976 in the „remotely controlled vehicle“ (ROV), when the SCARAB program was developed by the service providers of the Atlantic Cable and Maintenance Agreement (AT-T, BT, FPTT, C-W and Teleglobe). A selection of key references from the telephone coaxial cable period is mentioned in [6,7,8]. During the warranty period, the contractor also offers technical assistance services provided by experts. Much of the submarine systems are in addition to private or unionized maintenance contracts for the sea, where they have access to strategically located repair vessels in the area, for a quarterly fee called parking fees. Because cable defects are rare, these vessels are shared by many cable systems, and the likelihood of more simultaneous errors than available vessels is relatively low. In order to keep existing systems in service, regional agreements have been reached to reduce maintenance costs. The main operators (AT-T, BPO, C-W and PTT in France) were both shipowners and service providers under a geographical construction and maintenance contract (CMA). From 1965 to 1985, such CMAs were developed in the North Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean, the South Pacific (Fiji), the Yokohama area, the North Pacific, the Hawaiian zone, Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean.
CMAs relied on ship coverage as insurance (permanent charges) and additional costs of the vessel: fuel, personnel (operating costs) per operation. As a result, maintenance could be budgeted annually in a range of 1.5 to 3% of the system`s historical costs. These organizations have encouraged repair procedures and standard handling, testing and connection equipment. Area maintenance is a proven solution for the maintenance of an underwater wiring system, and the YZ is able to provide such a service. With the increasing complexity of the systems, these support services are increasingly contracted, even beyond the warranty period. These services can range from error analysis to network management system to long-distance connection (provided buyers have access to them) to field interventions for major problems. YZ is one of the cable maintenance areas that is part of a mutual assistance agreement called the Pacific and Indian Ocean Cable Maintenance Agreement. In the event of a major multiple cable failure, a maintenance area may source additional vessels from an adjacent area.
The five-year service contract came into effect on March 10, 2017. Under the agreement, TE SubCom will use the Reliance cabler, based in the South Pacific, to maintain under-sea cable systems over an area of more than 28 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean.